San Bernardo Community
The late majority and laggard case study will focus on the public housing stock owned by the Municipality of Milan that accounts for about 27945 flats and 50500 inhabitants (i.e. 24684 families), having thus a huge replication and scale up potential. Tenants include people with different age ranges: 0-14 (8,36 %), 15-18 (4,49 %), 19-25 (23,50 %), 46-65 (30,54 %), over 66 (32,90 %). A few different nationalities are also represented, with the following share: Italy (83,17 %), Egypt (2,91 %), Morocco (2,30 %), Philippines (1,56 %), Sri Lanka (1,12 %), Peru (1,08 %), Ecuador (0,85 %), other (7,01 %).
The public housing stock is widespread on all of the 9 city areas, as follows: area 1 (6%), area 2 (4%), area 3 (7%), area 4 (7%), area 5 (13%), area 6 (25%), area 7 (9%), area 8 (16%), area 9 (14%). All of the buildings are characterised by poor energy and environmental conditions that are often also linked to economic and fuel poverty and social exclusion. Due to this reason, the Municipality of Milan, started in the last years a campaign of deep energy retrofits that lead the inception of innovative buildings, but not yet of energy communities. The case study will be focused on the two multi-family residential blocks of via San Bernardo 29A, recently renovated under the H2020 SCC01 project Sharing Cities, including, further than envelope insulation, a centralised water-to-water electric heat pump for heating, controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV), PV, electric storage batteries, and an advanced monitoring system. Other two multi-family residential blocks stand close, i.e. San Bernardo 48 and 50, also recently renovated under the FP7 research project EU-GUGLE, that do not, nevertheless, include electric heat pumps, storage batteries and advanced monitoring systems, but are provided with PV panels useful only for common uses. Altogether the blocks account for 144 apartments and about 450 tenants, and represent a potential energy community to be enabled, providing a breakthrough innovation for public housing management in Milan, in Italy and in Europe, with the aim also to fight energy poverty.